Calendrier des cours - CEI-Europe
avril 23 - 27, 2018. Amersfoort, The Netherlands
Although RF circuits are generally considered to be circuits that operate from tens of MHz up to several GHz, and microwave circuits at frequencies beyond that, boundaries based purely on frequency are rarely appropriate. Analog integrated circuits based on lower-frequency design methodologies can now operate well into the microwave range, purely because of smaller feature sizes that are now available in CMOS and silicon-germanium technologies. BiCMOS integrated circuits that operate in the microwave frequency range, designed using low frequency architectures, are now abundant. However, classical microwave circuit design techniques are still important to model and understand problems arising from noise, mismatch, circuit losses, and limited bandwidth. We will focus on the design of discrete circuits that are differentiated from their historically lower-frequency counterparts by several features. In RF and microwave design, the phase shift of the component is significant because its size is comparable with a wavelength, its reactances and parasitics must be accounted for, and reflections occur between elements. These all limit bandwidth. We also need to consider circuit losses that degrade the Q of an element as well as introduce noise, and nonlinearities that introduce distortion into the signal path. Electromagnetic radiation and capacitive coupling will also be features of such circuits. Such 'RF and microwave' effects are most commonly observed when using discrete or custom devices, or when assembling integrated circuits together at higher frequencies into systems.
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